Welcome to ETHNOPOLITICS

a peer-reviewed journal, providing access to high-quality, original research examining current issues related to ethnopolitics and self-determination from a political science and international relations perspective encouraging dialogue among and between academics and practitioners keeping researchers and analysts up to date with the latest publications in the field

Specialist Group on Ethnopolitics

We are a multidisciplinary, international network of academics and... read more

Cloud Accounting Graphic

Cloud Accounting That Changes Business in the Developing World

New technologies are coming up that are revolutionizing the... read more

Phone Number Prefixes That Allows All Communities to Reach Your Business

Which number, between 1300 and 1800, will promote your... read more

Should You Invest in Video Technology?

If you took time and asked several people who... read more

Why Your Business Needs 1300 Numbers Sydney

Today, businesses need everything they can get to thrive.... read more

Cloud Accounting Graphic

Cloud Accounting That Changes Business in the Developing World

New technologies are coming up that are revolutionizing the way business is being conducted today. There are automation that are springing up all over the place in a bid to make business much easier. Today, the ease of starting a business can’t be compared to previous years when technology, let alone information, was hardly available for anyone wanting to venture out.

So, how does the Xero software change the way you conduct your business as an accountant?

Change the Way You Do Business

Some roles can’t be replaced, and accounting is one of them. Even with all application installed, accounting will definitely require a level of dedication away from other interests in the business, and that is where accounting solutions like Xero come in to save the day. The Xero accounting software doesn’t just work for business owners, but also accountants who wish to improve their practice and deliver the best services to their clients!

For one, your efficiency is boosted infinitely. Xero accounting software automates some of the most mundane and complicated tasks leaving you with energy for more pressing tasks like solution finding. Being a Xero Accountant allows you to access tools that optimize the tasks that shouldn’t require your involvement. You free up most of your time to invest in other avenues that will boost your clients’ experiences, cementing your clients’ loyalty.

Increased Revenue

Of course, with better efficiency comes more revenue. The more efficient you’re, the more work you are able to accomplish thus, more money in your wallet! This alone should be a prime motivator to adopt Xero solutions in your practice. As your revenue grows, your practice also grows. This means that you will have more resources to add more members to your team, translating to even more efficiency in your operations. Xero allows you to monitor the data flow more efficiently, allowing you to control what measures to take to solve problems much sooner. You also get to focus on what you are good at, and not what you must push yourself to just get through the day. How better can you make your practice more rewarding?

Ability to Handle Multiple Currencies

Xero accounting solutions offer multi-national currency handling capabilities. This removes unpleasant tasks associated with bank statement reconciliations involving clients from all over the world. You will get to bypass the agony of first converting the values to the default currency; Xero works efficiently to make accurate conversions and applies them across the board. Your clients will get invoices with updated values in their preferred currencies while your numbers will be calculated and displayed on your own. You can also view invoices in the client’s currency, allowing you to have an idea of business from their side quickly.

Data Security

As mentioned, Xero allows you to work from wherever you want. Thus, it’s reasonable to expect tight data security measures from your online accounting platform. Xero offers exactly that! The two-step authentication eliminated all attempts of hacking (every hacker dreads dealing with two-step authentication!).
There you have it. Xero doesn’t work for small businesses alone. Professionals like you can also use Xero to change the way they do business as Xero accountants!

Phone Number Prefixes That Allows All Communities to Reach Your Business

Which number, between 1300 and 1800, will promote your business to the next level? When choosing a number for your business, you might be tempted to choose the number that offers you cheap plans and forget about the ideal functionalities and features. 1300 and 1800 numbers are designed for startups, but they also come in handy for medium and large businesses.

Both these numbers have nearly the same features, and their functions are almost the same. Both are virtual numbers which do not need new lines; they are not tied to a telephone or a location exchange. The main difference are the call costs.

Call Costs for 1300 and 1800 Numbers

1300 numbers are becoming popular due to their call rates; they are referred to as local call numbers thanks to the fact that local rates apply to all called made nationally in Australia. This fact makes them attract a national market – mobile rates may vary a bit.

When comparing 1300 and 1800 numbers, you will notice that calls from the latter are made at no cost to the caller as long as the calls are made from Australian landlines. Mobile carriers have also made 1800 numbers free.
Since these numbers can be routed to different answering points, different fixed lines, mobile carriers and VoIP offer different allowances for calls in both 1300 and 1800 in their plans. Customers will enjoy the free minutes for each of the numbers or pay different rates based on plans selected.

Charges for Businesses

Whichever number you choose, you will have to pay a monthly fee for your number to stay connected at all times. The rates for each number will be dependent on the selected call plan. This is where the main difference in costs come in – local call rates are lower than free call numbers, and this is where 1300 numbers win.

The providers of these two numbers categorize rates based on the origin of the calls – call can be local, national or mobile rates. To choose the rates that work for you, you will need to consider where most of your calls come from and how long they last. This way, you will be able to save money by choosing a plan that works to meet your business needs.

Which is the Best for You?

1800 numbers are great if you want to allow your callers to call you for long periods but they are not cheap for your business. If you plan on growing your business in a number of areas, these free call numbers are the best.
But, if most of your clients are from local areas, you will need a 1300 number. If you share costs with your callers, not only do you make it affordable for your business but also for your callers. Again, this is a great way of separating your true clients from the rest.

Get a 1300 Number

If you are wondering what is a 1300 number, you can learn more before getting one. Startups love it for its cost-effectiveness and for its features. Plus, you can get local, and national calls and the rates are great. Choose the best 1300 number and kickstart your business.

Should You Invest in Video Technology?

If you took time and asked several people who probably wanted to vlog why they never got to do it, their first response would be the cost of the video equipment they needed to kickstart their journey. And, they are justified in thinking so.

However, there are affordable video technology equipment that anyone interested in buying quality equipment can be able to. besides, you don’t just have to be a vlogger to purchase one. Think of the memorable moments you want to capture with your friends, family or significant others. From the birthday parties, graduation ceremonies to anniversaries.

With more and more companies producing video equipment, the cost of such devices is significantly decreasing. Therefore, getting video technology that is fairly priced is a lot easier. There is a wide range of devices that one can get at affordable rates.

A high-quality laptop for video editing is one of the devices you will need. Most people think that Macs are better than PCs. The truth is, there are good affordable PCs that have an excellent processing power and give you quality content.

For you to edit your content, you will need a good camera for your videos or photos. With the invention of cameras that have high megapixels and take quality photos and videos, most people don’t see the need to invest in the DSLR camera for instance.

If you are not a serious vlogger/blogger who needs to take quality photos for your blog or make quality videos for your vlog, then a smartphone camera can be all you need.

Why Your Business Needs 1300 Numbers Sydney

Today, businesses need everything they can get to thrive. The climate has never been this bad for businesses. More businesses collapse with each new month or year. According to an article that appeared in Forbes, eight out of ten businesses fail each year. The reasons for the failure are as diverse as there are businesses. Some collapse because of lack of cash flow. Others collapse because they do not make enough sales or attract the right number of clients. Others also collapse because they do not have 1300 Numbers Sydney.
The 1300 Numbers present businesses with a lot of advantages as you will notice below.

No need for changing numbers

First, businesses can maintain the same 1300 number permanently. This way, clients don’t have to worry about anything. They know the business is always within easy reach whenever they need something from it. They do not have to check for the most recent number from other sources or clients. Businesses can relocate and still maintain or operate the same number, which is good for clients, once again. The 1300 Numbers, whether in Sydney or elsewhere, are among the easiest to reconfigure.

Perfect for growth and expansion

One reason many businesses collapse is lack of growth and expansion. Granted, expansion and growth – of any kind – ordinarily means spending more money. However, in this case, it does wonders for your business. By using 1300 Numbers, the business will have little difficulty in expanding its geographical coverage. More importantly, it will expand without incurring or spending more money that it budgeted for. It allows you to track spending, and keywords.In the end, the business can continue operating without any disruption to its financial base.

Perfect for enhancing brand image

Businesses that maintain the 1300 Numbers often enhance their brand image. How does this happen? Well, it does so by creating the impression that it is not merely a local business. Incidentally, these numbers help to put the clients’ minds at ease. Clients can call from wherever they are in Australia (not only in Sydney) and pay local rates. The numbers will not cost them an arm and a leg to call. What this means is clients will not suffer a huge dent in their finances every time they have to call your business regarding any important issue.
Businesses that open a line of communication with their clients are less likely to collapse. The 1300 Numbers encourage this habit to develop and become normal to all concerned parties. Studies have shown that clients are more likely to dial any 1300 Number rather than a mobile number or any local number. Clients trust businesses that maintain the 1300 Numbers. A trusting client is what your business needs to thrive in 2018 and beyond. Clients find it easy to channel their inquiries, concerns, suggestions, and complaints via the 1300 Numbers.

Lastly, 1300 numbers come with an Account Management Portal (AMP), which you can manage or operate online. Business owners are now able to access detailed reports of all calls they made using these numbers via AMP. They can also access comprehensive service usage data through AMP. As you might have noticed here, 1300 Numbers are mandatory for any Sydney business that wants to continue operating while others collapse all around it.

Getting Bail Bond Services When You Feel Discriminated

Getting Bail Bond Services When You Feel Discriminated

The bail bond system has been accused of discriminating the poor and the middle class, as well as sometimes being against some ethnic groups or race. Judges, at times, can discriminate when they are setting bail, but thanks to the competition between bond dealers, the impact of discrimination has been lessened.

When the bail has been set high, the defendant needs to find the best bail bond service to ensure they get the best deal. If for instance, your bail bond is set ten times higher than that of another defendant charged with the same crime, you can still get a good deal. In most cases, bail bonds service will be willing to pay your bond at a lower percentage fee, like 3 percent, to ensure you do not lose much.

High Bail Bonds and Low Fees

A bond dealer will offer to pay bail bond even when it has been set high due to discrimination. If, for instance, a bail bond is set at $5,000 and $50,000 for two people charged with the same crime, the bond dealer might offer 5,000 with 10 percent non-refundable fee and only 4 percent in 50,000.

The first case, the person who receives $5000 has a high probability of fleeing as they know the bond dealer will be more concerned with a higher amount than concentrating on $5000. The lower fees on, the higher bail mean that the defendant has a lower probability of flight and the higher fee in the low bond shoes that the defendant is likely to run away.

Finding a Good Bail Bond Service

You will need to find a good bail bond service to ensure that a high discriminatory bond is paid for at a lower fee. If your bond is set ten times or more than your lawyer thinks it should, then your only savior is a bail bond dealer. You can find the best by performing simple comparisons and asking them questions about their services.

Your lawyer might recommend a good service; they know for you to check out. With so many services today, finding the right one needs you to be keen and involve your lawyer on every step. You need a low fee with no hidden charges, and as such, transparency from a service is very crucial.

Is There Discrimination?

There have been cases where people alleged to have their bail bonds set unfairly high. Claims of ethnicity-related discrimination by the bail setting system are also not unheard of.
For judges, there is the need to reduce the cases of flight and hence the bail bond system. While most of the claims are not substantiated, defendants need to know how to escape the harsh system by getting themselves a good bond dealer.

So, Which is the Best Bail Bond Service?

Competition among bail bond dealers has worked to ensure that more than half of the repercussions of racially or ethnically disparate bail setting have been mitigated. If you are patient, you can find the best bail bond service.

Tutoring and Education in Developed Nations

Availability of Tutors and Private Education in Developed vs. Developing Nations

The availability of education is one of the biggest separators between the “haves” and the “have nots” in terms of upward mobility. Not only is quality education not available to most people in the world, but many students (especially girls) are forced out of school in order to care for their families, at a very early age. This creates a cycle of poverty that perpetually keeps whole societies impoverished.

To further separate the “first world” from the developing world is the availability of tutors and private education, specific test preparation, etc. There are tutors available virtually everywhere in the U.S., from Staten Island to San Diego.

This type of “educational luxury”, as I like to call it, is almost an embarrassment of riches. The developed world has so much education, it can spend extra resources for the hard to reach students. I’m not saying this is a bad thing, but it does indicate the need for a more equitable distribution of these resources.

That’s why I like charities like the Thousand Girls Initiative, which seeks to provide 1000 girls with funding in Guatemala, one of the countries that is most viciously effected by the cycle of poverty that I mentioned above. Girls are forced to exit school at around 10 or 11 years old, and work or provide for their family.

It would be nice to see families that have the means to easily provide for their own people, to devote a small donation to the educational needs of the less fortunate. In fact, I would love to see some of the big players in the tutoring and educational game, like Sylvan Learning Center/etc, make a large donation (they may have, I’m not sure, I haven’t looked into it).

Not trying to slander anybody here, but seeing children not living up to the potential really hits home for me, and I would love to see it change for the better.

I don’t think that’s very unreasonable, do you?

Children using laptops provided by "One Laptop Per Child

Funding for Arts and Technology Education in the Developing World

While much of the focus for developing nations is on the fundamentals of health, nutrition and infrastructure (and for good reason), there is a lot to be said for the introduction of arts and technology programs throughout the developing world.  Many citizens of those countries do have their basic needs met, and adding on a layer of both culture and technology, science and humanities, can give them an extra leg up in becoming a more fully functional community.

Famously this has been attempted by “One Laptop per Child“, a lofty goal to provide “each child with a rugged, low-cost, low-power, connected laptop”.  So far they have made progress to about 2.5 million children in Latin America, Africa and elsewhere, although they have also been subject to much criticism on various areas, such as cost, lack of support, and their top down approach.

The reasoning is somewhat obvious.  One early supporter equated having computers in labs and community centers as libraries where the books were chained to the wall.  Being able to bring laptops home allows families to have a consistent window to the outside world, a place for children to engage in games and other educational features during down time, and doesn’t limit access based on transportation or other restrictions that community centers do.

And it doesn’t stop at science either.  One of the biggest uses of technology is to enable to creation and consumption of art.  Equipment like printers, laptops and tablets for artists can enable drawing without the need for paper and coloring equipment, sharing of artwork on the web and reaching a global audience, consumption of both art and art critiques that can provide important context and guidance as young artists find their grasp in the world.

All this being said, the critique of a lack of support is important.  Think if you gave you great grandmother a computer, but never answered her calls for technical support, and didn’t give any ongoing guidance.  No doubt the computer would end up collecting dust in the attic.  It’s similar with giving technology to the developing world, as their isn’t the necessary infrastructure (such as ubiquitous internet connection) to facilitate “self-help”.

For this reason it’s important to combine any technology distribution initiative with a supportive education initiative that will provide guidance, classes, technical support, as well as inspiration for the uses of of the technology.  Think of the equipment as the foundation, or seed, but we need to built upon that in order for it to have a full effect.

Just my two cents…

References:

http://one.laptop.org/

http://www.secretasianman.com/best-laptop-for-artists/

Image provided by One Laptop Per Child.

Infrastructure and Construction in the Developing World

How can politics and ethnicity effect infrastructure in the developing world? Well, we don’t have to look very far, in fact we’ve seen this play out in the first-world very often in the past century. We don’t even have to look past the gold ol’ US of A.

The concept of “housing discrimination” probably hasn’t gotten enough attention. It one of the biggest blights on American history since Jim Crow. It was essentially a legal practice of declining to give mortgages or sell property to Black Americans. Legally it was argued that the presence of black families would reduce the property value, hence there was damage that would be done to the neighbors and other property owners.

We saw this play out post World War II, where veterans returning home from fighting the war were told they could not benefit from the GI bills statutes on VA-loans, because they were trying to by homes in the wrong neighborhood.

This is the most obscene example of this practice (and the fact that it was perpetrated on veterans returning home from war is just further disgusting), but it plays out in various other ways throughout the world.

Thankfully new building construction in major cities throughout the world is protected, and even encouraged to be in underutilized areas through programs such as HUBZone, low income housing is subsidized through tax incentives, and discriminatory practices are strictly outlawed.

Of course the most common is probably also the most under-reported, because it simply relies on the “preferences” of those buying or selling homes. This type of “hidden” racism will likely be a problems for many generations into the future. In fact, most cases the issue of discrimination is not an institutional one, because people simply don’t have the money to buy! This leads to effective ghettos, even if they aren’t enforced ghettos like we’ve seen in autocratic regimes.

This is one reason why subsidizing housing blocks in otherwise high income areas is so important. It helps to breed a mingling of the classes and avoid the effective segregation that happens when income strata “naturally” separate based on home or rent prices. It might be decried as “unnatural” or a kind of redistribution of wealth, but history has proven that action like this is necessary to avoid segregational effects.

Safety for Woman and Children in the Developing World

One of the biggest issues in the developing world is the safety of woman and children. They are the most exploited segment of society, and should, equally, be the highest priority for protections from government and social action groups.

Some basic elements that should be addressed include:

  • Basic access to feminine health care.
  • Protection for attacks, child marriage, sexual harrassment and assault.
  • Access to basic childcare equipment, like baby wraps, diapers, baby bottles, formula, etc.

These issues shouldn’t really be controversial, but unfortunately they aren’t the primary focus of many country’s governments or their population.  Rampant misogyny is still the norm in many places, and that doesn’t even exclude the developed nation.

It also disproportionately effects women and girls of color.  The recent flood of allegations against powerful men throughout the United States is just the tip of the iceberg, and shows the environment that many women and girls have to live in throughout the world.

Specialist Group on Ethnopolitics

We are a multidisciplinary, international network of academics and practitioners with an interest in ethnopolitics, established under the auspices of the Political Studies Association of the United Kingdom and convened by Karl Cordell and Stefan Wolff.

The group, as per its constitution, exists to serve the interests of its members, and its activities are driven by them. The main purpose of the group is to facilitate academic and policy-relevant research within the broadly defined field of ETHNOPOLITICS, to enhance the breadth and depth of teaching in our area of interest, and encourage exchange and debate between interested members of the Specialist Group on issues related to, among other things, the origin, development, and settlement of ethnic conflicts. The Specialist Group is open to the sharing of ideas, including across disciplinary boundaries, and is not confined to any specific theoretical or methodological approach to the study of ethnopolitics.

The Specialist Group’s activities comprise a mailing list, the publication of quarterly academic journal and of a series of working papers, and the convening of workshops and panels at conferences.